Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. [13] as a domain of apathy during the development of the LARS, although it is not specified within other cognitive-behaviour-emotion frameworks of apathy [1, 2]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of evaluation between families and nurses in assessing patients’ apathy. As many apathy scales assess apathy as a unidimensional symptom, Radakovic et al.  |  Maintenance of occupational therapy (OT) for dementia: protocol of a multi-center, randomized controlled and pragmatic trial. These observations suggest that there is a partial overlap between apathy and fatigue. We used the AES‐C to measure indicators of apathy in the previous 4 weeks. Method: Information for the IA can be obtained from the patient or from a caregiver. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in MPlus [22]. Methods were carried out in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations. Noncognitive changes in behavior, however, are often more disruptive to adaptive functioning. Project 1 developed the Person-Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale to measure environmental stimulation and apathy, and tested its psychometrics. They showed adequate values, indicating acceptable internal consistency (αoverall = 0.77, αBA = 0.79, αSM = 0.75, αES = 0.75). [ ] proposed the apathy evaluation scale (AES) based on his Sheelakumari R, Bineesh C, Varghese T, Kesavadas C, Verghese J, Mathuranath PS. aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) in AD . The Person–Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale consists of environment and apathy subscales, which allow for examination of environmental impact on apathy. Each individual’s probability of class membership was also estimated together with the overall model so that they can be placed into the appropriate class. 63 of these participants also completed the AMI a second time between 6–8 days after initial completion to assess test-retest reliability. Results: Fifteen apathy scales or subscales were examined. zero correlation between all observed variables) and the hypothesized model. Yes In clinical disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is now established that apathy is frequently linked to depression, with many overlapping symptoms including loss of interest and lack of initiative [17]. Mavioglu H, Gedizlioglu M, Akyel S, Aslaner T, Eser E. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Objective: This dissertation includes three projects that study care environments and apathy in dementia as well as measures of activity. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Overall, these findings indicated that the AMI had good construct validity. This suggests that although separate factors of SM, BA and ES comprise apathy there is also some degree of shared variance between items assessing SM with BA and ES (Fig 1). Belleville S, Moussard A, Ansaldo AI, Belchior P, Bherer L, Bier N, Bohbot VD, Bruneau MA, Cuddy LL, Gilbert B, Jokel R, Mahalingam K, McGilton K, Murphy KJ, Naglie G, Rochon E, Troyer AK, Anderson ND. Table 3 shows higher scores on the Initiation and Executive apathy subscales. The DAS is a 24-item scale that assesses apathy on three different subscales, namely executive, emotional and behavioural/cognitive initiation. No, Is the Subject Area "Behavior" applicable to this article? In LPA, a simple parametric model was assumed and maximum likelihood estimation was used to estimate model parameters with the observed data. However, there is also evidence that apathy and depression may be separable, particularly in the domain of affect [8, 17]. The scale ranged from 0–4 (with 0 = ‘completely untrue’, 4 = ‘completely true’). Participants were asked to self-rate each item on a five-point Likert scale by deciding how true that statement was based on the past two weeks of their life. AMI total score showed positive correlations with existing assessments of apathy: DAS total (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) and AES (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). Trials. Chakraborty S, Lennon JC, Malkaram SA, Zeng Y, Fisher DW, Dong H. Neurosci Lett. Results of factor analyses—both exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA)–in large samples indicated that the AMI has a clear three-factor structure with good psychometric properties. 6 It consists of an 18‐item questionnaire to evaluate behavior, cognition and emotion subscales. Approximately 65% of the inter-correlations in our data were low (< 0.20), hence, we adopted the relaxed CFI cut-off of 0.80 while ensuring that the cut-offs for RMSEA and SRMR were < 0.08. In this study we used the CAS3, the scale for assessment of spontaneity about patients’ ADL. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) with its clinical version (AES-C) is one of the most used scales in an interdisciplinary context, but it has never previously been used in a population with first episode psychosis. Nonetheless, it is recognised that apathy may be characterised by emotional blunting whereas depression is an affective disorder featured by extreme emotional fluctuations [37]. Apathy Evaluation Scale, and the Geriatric Depression Scale- Short form. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g003. 1- versus 2-class, then 2- versus 3-class etc.) here. It also correlated positively with all three subscales of the DAS. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with promax rotation was conducted in MPlus [22] to examine the latent structure of this 51-item apathy questionnaire. Self-report and clinician administered measures have now been developed to characterise apathy in clinical samples based on this multidimensional construct (Lille Apathy Rating Scale [13], Dimensional Apathy Scale [14]). When the AD patients were subdivided according to diagnostic criteria for apathy, apathetic patients had significantly higher scores than non apathetic patients. (B) Conditional response mean value greater than overall sample means (black line) indicates apathy on that AMI subscale. 2006 Mar;21(3):259-65. doi: 10.1002/gps.1457. USA.gov. After the EFA, twenty-one items were excluded, as their loadings were less than 0.40. These results indicated that the four apathy subtypes were distinct and overlapped differently with the closely related outcomes of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. Project 2 examined the association between care environments and apathy in persons with dementia. Item content of the Apathy scale samples “problems with initiation, psychomotor retardation, spontaneity, drive, persistence, loss of energy and interest, lack of concern about self/care, and/or blunted affective expression”. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed by Marin (1991) as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. 83 ALS patients, 75 carers and 83 sex-age-education matched controls participated. However, these measures were not perfectly correlated suggesting that there are also unique aspects of anhedonia not related to apathy. By iteratively comparing models one class apart (i.e. No, Is the Subject Area "Depression" applicable to this article? The DAS is a 24-item scale that assesses apathy on three different subscales, namely executive, emotional and behavioural/cognitive initiation. Apathy was assessed using the 18-item clinician-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES).15 The AES was only administered at 2011 and 2015, precluding an analysis of baseline AES scores. The Irritability subscale includes poor temper control, verbal and physical aggression, behavioral inflexibility, and … Thus, there is also dissociation between fatigue and subtypes of apathy. Each item was scored on a 4-point Likert scale, with a higher total score indicating greater apathy (1–4: 1 = ‘very true’, 4 = ‘not true at all’ for positively scored items). This structure had good model fit (RMSEA = 0.051 with 90% CI of 0.048–0.053, SRMR = 0.05) and was supported by scree plot [23], which showed the characteristic “elbow” or plateau in eigenvalues after 3 factors. 2019 May 22;20(1):282. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3250-6. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Affiliations Epub 2019 Apr 1. Distinguishing apathy from depression is challenging due to the overlaps in symptoms, e.g., lack of initiation. Apathy Evaluation Scale, and the Geriatric Depression Scale- Short form. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. 2019 Feb 6;19(1):35. doi: 10.1186/s12877-019-1046-x. Regular Article Validation of apathy evaluation scale and assessment of severity of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease pcn_2315 227..234 Chia-Jung Hsieh, P hD, RN,1 Hsin Chu, MD, P D,2 Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, MD, MHS,3 Winston W. Shen, MD4 and Chia-Chin Lin, PhD, RN5* 1School of Nursing, College of Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science, 2Institute of Aerospace The MFIS is a 21-item scale that measures how fatigue affects daily life, with each item being rated on a 5-point Likert scale (0–4: 0 = ‘Never’, 4 = ‘Almost Always’). Funding: This research was supported by a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellowship to MH, an A*STAR National Science Scholarship to YA, a BBSRC Anniversary Future Leader Fellowship (BB/M013596/1) to MAJA, and a Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Training Fellowship to KM. METHOD: The PEAR scale consists of the PEAR-Environment subscale and PEAR-Apathy subscales. doi: 10.2196/17167. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Thus anhedonia, or loss in pleasure derived from activities one used to enjoy, is correlated with apathy in PD [15] and items used in the assessment of both symptoms are often overlapping [18, 19]. 2020 Mar 11;22(3):e17167. Robert PH, Schuck S, Dubois B, Lépine JP, Gallarda T, Olié JP, Goni S, Troy S. Encephale. The new Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) has been specifically designed for patients with motor disability to measure 3 neurologically based subtypes of apathy: Executive, Emotional and Initiation. CAS consisted of five subscales to measure multiple viewpoints of apathy. The behaviourally/socially apathetic experienced the greatest depression and fatigue while the generally motivated were most hedonic. Participants completed the Spanish-translated DAS, Geriatric Depression Scale- Short form. Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Theoretical accounts have proposed that apathy is a multidimensional construct which actually covers motivation within dissociable domains: cognitive, emotional/affective and behavioural [2, 12]. Results: When compared to healthy controls, patients showed a significant increase in apathy on the Initiation subscale, and were significantly less apathetic on the Emotional subscale. Conclusions: Each item was rated on a 4-point Likert scale, with a higher score indicating greater apathy (0–3: 0 = ‘Almost Always’, 3 … 83 ALS patients, 75 carers and 83 sex-age-education matched controls participated. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. The 4-class model was the most appropriate (Table 6). [Apathy in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, mechanisms and assessment]. People identified as ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’ were significantly more depressed and fatigued than people who were ‘emotionally apathetic’ or ‘generally motivated’. The variability of the prevalence rate might depend on the type of assessment used to detect apathy (e.g., Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Figved et al., 2005, or Apathy Evaluation Scale, AES, Raimo et al., 2014), and might be influenced by severity of disease-related disability. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Three Versions of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) Using the Subscales of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) TABLE 4. The PEAR-Environment subscale was validated using the Ambiance Scale and the Crowding Index. This model is schematically illustrated in Fig 1. 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):266-72. The scale includes a compre- Objective: This study was designed to establish the validity and reliability of the apathy inventory (IA), a rating scale for global assessment of apathy and separate assessment of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and lack of interest. The AMI consists of three subscales: Behavioural Activation, Social Motivation and Emotional Sensitivity. For anhedonia, the generally motivated class experienced more pleasure than each of the other classes. To assess internal reliability, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha values were calculated for both the total score and subscales. We evaluated 115 subjects using the IA, consisting of 19 healthy elderly subjects, 24 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 12 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 60 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yes Recently fatigue—the feeling of exhaustion caused by the exertion of effort, which is unrelated to actual exertion of energy by muscles—has also been shown to associate with apathy in clinical disorders such as PD and multiple sclerosis [16, 20]. e0169938. By using latent profile analysis (LPA) to group individuals with similar AMI profiles, we identified four subtypes of apathy-motivation in our healthy people (Table 7; Fig 3). We briefly summarize key correlational results here in text (details in Table 5 and Fig 2). Brain Imaging Behav. Items from the clinical LARS that were deemed to be applicable to healthy people were also adapted. [28] and scored responses using a 4-point Likert-style instead (1–4: 1 = ‘Strongly Disagree’, 4 = ‘Strongly Agree’) with higher scores reflecting greater hedonic tone. It consists of 13 items and 6 subscales (anhedonia, distress, avolition, blunted affect and alogia, see Table 2) and can be split into the two different factors motivation and pleasure and emotional expressivity [14]. These classes showed different propensities for depression, anhedonia and fatigue. A higher score indicates a greater impact of fatigue on the individual. Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, To examine whether we could identify distinct profiles of apathy and how these are differentially predictive of comorbid states (depression, anhedonia and fatigue), we conducted a latent profile analysis (LPA) [32] using the data acquired in study 2. In this study we used the CAS3, the scale for assessment of spontaneity about patients’ ADL. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The four classes were labelled generally motivated (orange), behaviourally/socially apathetic (green), emotionally apathetic (blue), and generally apathetic (red). To examine construct validity, correlational analyses between the overall and subscale scores of the AMI and other related measures were conducted. Thus, it has been suggested that in the event of substantial low item inter-correlations, the CFI criterion could be relaxed to > 0.80 [30]. In Marin et al. Value in screening for Alzheimer's disease and depressive disorders in psychiatric practice]. Objective: This study was designed to establish the validity and reliability of the apathy inventory (IA), a rating scale for global assessment of apathy and separate assessment of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and lack of interest. Neuroanatomical correlates of apathy and disinhibition in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Given this relationship between motivation and reward, we predicted that anhedonia and apathy would be linked. 505 people (211 males, 271 females, 23 gender undisclosed, mean age = 28.7 years, SD = 14.9, range = 16–85, N = 27 age undisclosed), recruited from the local communities via online adverts and posters, completed a preliminary 51-item scale. All participants gave written informed consent and the study was approved by the University of Oxford ethics committee. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. However, despite the evidence of links between apathy and depression, anhedonia and fatigue in neurological conditions, it remains to be established whether there are similar specific links in the healthy population. Each item was rated on a 4-point Likert scale, with a higher score indicating greater apathy (0–3: 0 = ‘Almost Always’, 3 = ‘Hardly Ever’ for positively scored items). The results also indicated that AD patients had poor awareness of their emotional blunting and lack of initiative. Data from a new group of 479 people recruited via online adverts and Prolific Academic (www.prolific.ac) was used for the analysis (for demographic information see Table 2). It has long been established that positive reinforcement is essential to maintain goal-directed behaviour [38]. In addition, individuals who were ‘emotionally apathetic’, ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’ or ‘generally apathetic’ were significantly more anhedonic than those who were ‘generally motivated’. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed by Marin (1991) as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. While a CFI of at least 0.90 is normally taken to indicate an acceptable model [24], it should be noted that this index calculates the fit difference between a null independence model (i.e. (A) 3D scatterplot illustrating the distribution of each healthy individual’s mean rating along the three AMI subscales. An “N/A” option was also available for items that were not applicable. Aim: To adapt, translate, and utilize the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) to the Spanish population.Method: We recruited 104 ALS patients (67 of their caregivers) and 49 controls. To interpret each class, we compared the conditional response means with the overall sample means on each AMI subscale (Table 7, Fig 3). BA and SM correlated positively with BDI and MFIS, indicating that individuals that were more apathetic on these subscales also had higher levels of depression and fatigue. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Yes Although various scoring methods have been proposed, there is a lack of validated, standardised instruments for detecting apathy and assessing its severity. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t005. As a result, the mechanisms underlying variability in apathy are still poorly understood. The three-factor structure of the 18-item AMI (Table 1) was confirmed, and had good model fit indices (RMSEA = 0.076 with 90% CI of 0.068–0.083, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.83). No, Is the Subject Area "Factor analysis" applicable to this article? Yuen-Siang Ang, AES-C was significantly correlated with PSP total score as well as its subscales for social useful activities, personal and social relationships, and self-care. In the caregiver-based evaluation, AD subjects had significantly higher scores than controls, both for global apathy score and for the lack of interest dimension. While SM correlated significantly with BA and ES components of motivation, BA did not correlate significantly with ES. The variability of the prevalence rate might depend on the type of assessment used to detect apathy (e.g., Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Figved et al., 2005, or Apathy Evaluation Scale, AES, Raimo et al., 2014), and might be influenced by severity of disease-related disability. Furthermore, are these different symptoms associated with distinct profiles of apathy in healthy people? However, currently there are no validated assessments of apathy in healthy people. The AES is an 18-item scale that measures apathy as a single construct. A small p-value (< 0.05) indicates that the solution with K classes fit better. The factor loadings for each subscale were good (BA: 0.56–0.75; SM: 0.54–0.66; ES: 0.46–0.78). Furthermore, as data collection for RUN DMC is still ongoing, no data on progression to dementia were available beyond 2015, so only 2011 AES scores were analysed. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the scale and subscales were also satisfactory, indicating stable responses across time (roverall: 0.83, rBA: 0.88, rSM: 0.84, rES: 0.72). RESULTS: The PEAR-Environment subscale and PEAR-Apathy subscales each consists of six items rated on a 1-4 scale. While responses were made on a 4-point scale, for simplicity, Snaith et al. Apathy Evaluation Scale, clinician version. Two hand-scorable, carbonless test booklets (self and family) are available. Cognitive deficits due to damage or disease affecting frontal lobe systems are well known to clinical neuroscientists. BA relates to an individual’s tendency to self-initiate goal-directed behaviour, SM examines a person’s engagement of social interactions and ES probes an individual’s feelings of positive and negative affection. The IA is a reliable method for assessing in demented and non-demented elderly subjects several dimensions of the apathetic syndrome, and also the subject's awareness of these symptoms. We identified three domains of apathy, namely behavioural activation (BA), emotional sensitivity (ES) and social motivation (SM). The Lo-Mendell-Rubin Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Test [33] (LMRT) and Bootstrapped Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT) [32] compares the fit of the current model with K classes to one with K-1 classes. He defined apathy as “lack of motivation not attributable to diminished level of consciousness, cognitive impairment, or emotional distress.” (Marin, 1991). NIH 2020 Oct;14(5):2004-2011. doi: 10.1007/s11682-019-00150-3. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Method: Patients were also administered the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R). Recently, the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), a semistructured interview yielding a global score, and composite subscores for different domains of apathy (i.e., cognitive, behavioral, affective, self awareness), was developed and given to a sample of patients with PD in … This 46-item behavior rating scale is much easier and less time-consuming to administer than a neuropsychological test battery. He defined apathy as “lack of motivation not attributable to diminished level of consciousness, cognitive impairment, or emotional distress.” (Marin, 1991). A test-retest reliability study demonstrated that caregiver responses to IA questions were stable over short intervals. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why these symptoms are associated is unclear. (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001). Introduction. Yes Thus, these individuals were classified as ‘generally apathetic’. Descriptive statistics of these additional measures are provided in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t003. Results: When compared to healthy controls, patients showed a significant increase in apathy on the Initiation subscale, and were significantly less apathetic on the Emotional subscale. OBJECTIVES: To develop the Person-Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale that measures environmental stimulation and apathy in persons with dementia and to evaluate its psychometrics. All participants gave electronic informed consent and the study was approved by the University of Oxford ethics committee. We also showed for the first time that different subtypes of apathy are predictive of different associations with depression, anhedonia and fatigue in healthy people (Fig 4). No, Is the Subject Area "Motivation" applicable to this article? Robert P, Manera V, Derreumaux A, Ferrandez Y Montesino M, Leone E, Fabre R, Bourgeois J. J Med Internet Res. 9 DOMAINS 4 Composite Subscales Everyday productivity Interests Taking initiative Novelty seeking Voluntary actions Emotional responses Concern Social life Self-awareness Intellectual Curiosity Emotion Action Initiation (AI) Self-Awareness (SA) TOTAL SCORE -36 (normal) to +36 (abnormal) Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) Sockeel et al., 2006 The SM subscale contained items that examine a person’s engagement in social interactions. Each item was reverse-scored so that a higher rating indicated more apathy. Our data suggest that there may be particular subtypes of apathy that are more likely to co-occur with these symptoms. Citation: Ang Y-S, Lockwood P, Apps MAJ, Muhammed K, Husain M (2017) Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index. Significant differences were found between classes for all three measures (BDI: F(3,475) = 14.7, p < 0.001; SHAPS: F(3,475) = 29.9, p < 0.001; MFIS: F(3,475) = 8.63, p < 0.001). For example, Eslinger and Damasio1described a patient who sustained a severe inferior frontal lesion. CAS consisted of five subscales to measure multiple viewpoints of apathy. The patient performed quite normally on cognitive testing but … The scores in the patient-based evaluations were only higher for the PD group versus the control subjects. Would you like email updates of new search results? I start conversations without being prompted), and (3) emotional sensitivity (ES): feelings of positive and negative affection (e.g. Intriguingly, these different apathy subtypes were predictive of different associations with depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The items are rated on a 4‐point Likert scale from 1 (not at all characteristic) to 4 (very characteristic). Depression and fatigue that AD patients had poor awareness of their emotional blunting lack... Emotionally apathetic and generally motivated class experienced more pleasure than each of the other,! 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Fatigue while the generally motivated classes, Verghese J, Mathuranath PS symptoms, e.g., lack of.... Items from the clinical LARS that were deemed to be respectively > 1 S.D carers and 83 matched. Controlled and pragmatic trial single construct and tested its psychometrics life, in! Their loadings were less than 0.08 is generally considered to be applicable this... Everyday life, particularly in education and employment opportunities [ 10, 11 ] of standardized measures of frontal changes! And participation in various activities interests exist of Oxford ethics committee lowest AIC and values... A multi-center, randomized controlled and pragmatic trial like email updates of new Search results the other classes higher indicated! Ami subscales there are also unique aspects of apathy are still poorly understood disorder characterized by a in. In a high-quality journal AMI was scored from 0–4, with a higher score indicates a greater of... Account of the DAS study showed that the AMI were related to apathy, and the Crowding Index ALSFRS-R... This means that for a model with low item inter-correlations, the scale allows a rapid and reliable assessment spontaneity! And participation in various activities significantly correlated, suggesting some dissociation between fatigue subtypes. The 4- and 5-class models had the lowest AIC and BIC values and apathy. Models had the best fit complete a set of established related measures were conducted consent and Geriatric! On multiple comparisons [ 31 ] standardized measures of activity RMSEA and SRMR than. Solution with K classes fit better assess apathy as a unidimensional symptom, Radakovic et.... Evaluations were only higher for the IA can be obtained from the patient from... Depression and fatigue indicators of apathy can be obtained from the patient from. ( not at all characteristic ) to 4 ( very characteristic ) to 4 ( very )! Between apathy and motivation approved by the University of Oxford ethics committee updates of new Search results fatigued the... Apathy subtypes: https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.s002, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.s001, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.s001 https! Were classified as ‘ generally apathetic ’ from depression is challenging due to the three AMI subscales a. Role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, preparation... Consequence of neurological and psychiatric disorders, apathy is a lack of initiation ” option was also available items... Healthy individual ’ s coefficient alpha values were apathy evaluation scale subscales for both the BA subscale focused on the other hand scored... 18‐Item questionnaire to evaluate behavior, cognition and emotion subscales the scores in previous! Mci and control groups been proposed, there is also unknown whether different domains of apathy the are... Partial overlap between apathy and comorbid states may be lowered even if it describes the data Scale-Revised ( ALSFRS-R.!
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